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Many possess Turkish ethnic identity and speak Turkish in addition to Romani.
Moreover, between 50% and 75% of Romani are Muslims and more than 30 Romani dialects are reportedly used in the country.
"Although the largest Roma migration wave to the Bulgarian lands seems to have occurred in the 13th and 14th centuries, many Roma arrived with the Ottoman troops, accompanying army craftsmen and complementary military units." Ottoman tax records first mention Romani in the Nikopol region, where 3.5% of the registered households were Romani.
Under Mehmed II’s reign, all Romani — Christian and Muslim — paid a poll-tax that was otherwise imposed only on non-Muslims.
The former are mostly Christian (Eastern Orthodox and Protestant), while the latter are Muslim.
However, they enjoy more financial aid than other citizens, especially for children, which may have prompt the higher birth rates of the Romani. In 2011 the share of Romani with university degree reached 0.3%, while 6.9% have secondary education; the same share was 22.8%/47.6% for Bulgarians.
In Bulgaria Roma are discriminated: 59% to 80% of non-Roma have negative feelings towards Roma.
They are emancipated social group, having higher crime, unemployment, birth, death and poverty rates, and not many of them attend school.
Instead, they delimit the mass settlement of Romani in Bulgarian territory between the 13th and 14th centuries, supporting this time frame with 13th- and 14th-century documents referring to Romani presence in the surrounding Balkan states.
According to Bulgarian sociologist Ilona Tomova, Ottoman fiscal reports between the 15th and 17th centuries indirectly indicate Romani settlement in Bulgaria since the 13th century, as most registered Romani possessed Slavonic names and were Christians.